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Showing below up to 213 results in range #1 to #213.

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  • Access to drinking water and sanitation (Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation., type model (end-indicator))
  • Accessibility - grid (Accessibility expressed as travel time., type external parameter)
  • Actual crop and grass production - grid (Actual crop and grass production on agricultural land, based on potential yield and management intensity, type model (from/to model))
  • Adaptation costs (Costs for adaptation measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to actual or expected climate change effects., type model (end-indicator))
  • Adaptation level (Level of adaptation to climate change , defined as the share of climate change damage avoided by adaptation. This level is be calculated by the model to minimise adaptation costs and residual damage, or set by the user., type driver)
  • Agricultural area - grid (Total area for crop production (annual and perennial) and intensive grassland., type model (from/to model))
  • Air pollution policy (Air pollution policies set to reach emission reduction targets, represented in the model in the form of energy carrier and sector specific emission factors., type driver)
  • Algal blooms in lakes (Harmful algal blooms in lakes caused by cyanobacteria, producing toxins harmful to humans and animals., type model (end-indicator))
  • Animal productivity (Effective production of livestock commodities per animal per year., type driver)
  • Animal stocks (Number of animals per category: non-dairy cattle; dairy cattle; pigs; sheep and goats; poultry., type model (from/to model))
  • Aquatic MSA - grid (Relative Mean Species Abundance of original species in lakes, rivers and wetlands., type model (end-indicator))
  • BC, OC and NOx emissions (Emissions of BC, OC and NOx per year., type model (from/to model))
  • Bioenergy area (Area of bioenergy crop production, in model setting where sustainability criteria require that the area for bioenergy crops is not included in the agricultural production area (to avoid competition between bioenergy and food)., type model (from/to model))
  • Bioenergy production (Total bioenergy production., type model (from/to model))
  • Biofuel policy (Policies to foster the use of biofuels in transport, such as financial incentives and biofuel mandates and obligations., type driver)
  • Biome and eco-region - grid (Biomes are groups of plants and animals, often referred as ecosystems. Their spatial distribution on Earth is defined by climatic and geographical conditions defined as contiguous areas with similar climatic conditions. Biomes are often referred to by climatic conditions (such as, tropical, temperate, boreal) and physiological characteristic (such as, grassland, deciduous trees, coniferous trees)., type external parameter)
  • Built-up area - grid (Urban built-up area per grid cell, excluded from all biophysical modelling in IMAGE, increasing over time as a function of urban population and a country- and scenario-specific urban density curve., type driver)
  • CLUmondo specific input - grid (CLUMondo specific input., type external parameter)
  • CO and NMVOC emissions (Emissions from CO and NMVOC., type model (from/to model))
  • CO2 concentration (Atmospheric CO2 concentration., type model (from/to model))
  • CO2 emission from energy and industry (CO2 emission from energy and industry., type model (from/to model))
  • CO2 stored (The amount of CO2 stored in underground reservoirs by applying CO2 capture technology.., type model (end-indicator))
  • Capital supply (Capital available to replace depreciated stock and expand the stock to support economic growth., type driver)
  • Carbon pools in soil and timber - grid (Carbon biomass in three soil pools (litter, humus and charcoal) and two timber pools (slow decaying, and fast decaying)., type model (from/to model))
  • Carbon pools in vegetation - grid (Carbon pools in leaves, stems, branches and roots)., type model (from/to model))
  • Carbon price (Carbon price on the international trading market (in USD in 2005 per tonne C-eq) calculated from aggregated regional permit demand and supply curves derived from marginal abatement costs., type model (from/to model))
  • Carbon sequestration - grid (Net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems and oceans., type model (end-indicator))
  • Carbon storage price (The costs of capturing and storing CO2, affecting the use of CCS technology., type model (from/to model))
  • Change in soil properties - grid (Change in soil properties, such as clay/sand content, organic carbon content, soil depth (topsoil/subsoil)., type model (from/to model))
  • Child mortality (he probability per 1,000 that a new-born baby will die before reaching the age five, if subject to average age-specific mortality rates., type model (end-indicator))
  • Child underweight (Prevalence of undernourishment in children., type model (end-indicator))
  • Climate target (Climate target, defined in terms of concentration levels, radiative forcing, temperature targets, or cumulative emissions., type driver)
  • Cloudiness - grid (Percentage of cloudiness per month; assumed constant after the historical period, type historical data)
  • Coastal storm surges (Estimates on storm surge/tide water levels for a large number of coast segments., type external parameter)
  • Commodity price (Commodity price per sector, including various crop and livestock sectors.., type model (end-indicator))
  • Consumption loss (Loss of private consumption due to mitigation and adaptation costs and residual damage., type model (end-indicator))
  • Conversion assumptions (Conversion assumptions., type external parameter)
  • Crop fraction in agricultural area - grid (Fraction of agricultural land by crop type, per grid cell., type model (from/to model))
  • Crop irrigation water demand - grid (Water requirements for crop irrigation, calculated as daily moisture deficit during the growing season., type model (from/to model))
  • Crop production (Regional production per crop., type model (from/to model))
  • DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) (The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability and early death., type model (end-indicator))
  • Daily climate dataset - grid (Bias corrected daily precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation input. This data set is according to the monthly Precipitation and Temperature., type external parameter)
  • Degraded forest area (Permanently deforested areas for reasons other than expansion of agricultural land (calibrated to FAO deforestation statistics)., type model (from/to model))
  • Demand (all commodities) (Demand per sector including various crop and livestock sectors., type model (end-indicator))
  • Demand for electricity, heat and hydrogen (The demand for production of electricity, heat and hydrogen., type model (from/to model))
  • Demand for fossil fuels and bioenergy (The demand for the production of fossil fuels and bioenergy., type model (end-indicator))
  • Demand for primary energy (Total demand for energy production. Sum of final energy demand and energy inputs into energy conversion processes., type model (from/to model))
  • Demand traditional biomass (Regional demand for traditional bioenergy., type model (from/to model))
  • Digital water network - grid (Digital water network DDM30 describing drainage directions of surface water, with each cell only draining into one neighbouring cell, organising cells to river basins., type external parameter)
  • Distance to water - grid (Distance to water., type external parameter)
  • Domestic climate policy (Planned and/or implemented national climate and energy policies, such as taxes, feed-in tariffs, renewable targets, efficiency standards, that affect projected emission reduction., type driver)
  • Ecosystem services effect values (Database on relationships between environmental factors and ecosystem services., type external parameter)
  • Electricity price (The price of electricity., type model (from/to model))
  • Emission abatement (Reduction in emission factors as a function of Climate policy., type model (from/to model))
  • Emission factors (Exogenous emission factors per sector, activity and gas, mostly based on the EDGAR database., type external parameter)
  • Emission trading (Emission credits traded between regions, type model (end-indicator))
  • Empirical MSA effect values (Database of empirical relationships between environmental pressures and reduction in mean species abundance for aquatic ecosystems., type external parameter)
  • Energy and industry activity level (Activity levels in the energy and industrial sector, per process and energy carrier, for example, the combustion of petrol for transport or the production of crude oil., type model (from/to model))
  • Energy demand and production (Aggregated energy demand and production indicators from the energy model., type model (end-indicator))
  • Energy efficiency technology (Model assumptions determining future development of energy efficiency., type driver)
  • Energy intensity parameters (Set of parameters determining the energy use per unit of economic activity (in absence of technical energy efficiency improvements)., type driver)
  • Energy policy (Policy to achieve energy system objectives, such as energy security and energy access., type driver)
  • Energy resources (Volume of energy resource per carrier, region and supply cost class (determines depletion dynamics)., type driver)
  • Energy security indicators (Indicators on the status of energy security, such as energy self-sufficiency., type model (end-indicator))
  • Equity principles (General concepts of distributive justice or fairness used in effort sharing approaches. Three key equity principles are: Responsibility (historical contribution to warming); capability (ability to pay for mitigation); and equality (equal emissions allowances per capita)., type driver)
  • Erosion risk - grid (Risk of soil erosion caused by water., type model (from/to model))
  • Exogenously set market shares (Market shares of traditional biomass and secondary heat, for all demand sectors except the residential sector, exogenous scenario parameter., type external parameter)
  • Expected nr of affected people - grid (Population expected to be exposed to floods per year., type model (end-indicator))
  • Expected value of affected GDP - grid (GDP expected to be exposed to floods per year., type model (end-indicator))
  • Extensive grassland area - grid (Extensive pasture with low productivity used for grazing., type model (from/to model))
  • FAO deforestation rates (Historical deforestation rates according to FAO., type external parameter)
  • Feed conversion (Measure of an animal's efficiency in converting feed mass into the desired output such as meat and milk (for cattle, poultry, pigs, sheep and goats)., type driver)
  • Feed crop requirement (Total amount of feed required for the production of animal products. Grass and fodder species are consumed by grazing animals only (dairy and non-dairy cattle, sheep and goats), while pigs and poultry are fed feed crops and other feedstuffs., type model (from/to model))
  • Fertiliser use efficiency (Ratio of fertiliser uptake by a crop to fertiliser applied., type driver)
  • Fish landing - grid (Fish landings according to statistics from "Sea around us"., type external parameter)
  • Flood protection - grid (Reduction in flood risk by natural vegetation., type model (end-indicator))
  • Flood statistics - grid (Annual statistics of water depth and the flooded fraction per grid cell., type external parameter)
  • Food availability per capita (Food availability per capita., type model (from/to model))
  • Food availability, including fish and wild food (Food availability, including fish and wild food., type model (end-indicator))
  • Forest management type - grid (Forest management type: clear cut, selective logging, forest plantation or additional deforestation., type model (from/to model))
  • Forest plantation demand (Demand for forest plantation area., type driver)
  • Forest residues (Harvest losses (from damaged trees and unusable tree parts) or harvest residues that are left in the forest by purpose because of environmental concerns. These losses/residues remains in the forest after harvest, in in principle enter the soil pools. But they could also be used for other/energy purposes., type model (end-indicator))
  • Fraction of selective logging (The fraction of forest harvested in a grid, in clear cutting, selective cutting, wood plantations and additional deforestation. Fraction of selective cut determines the fraction of timber harvested by selective cutting of trees in semi-natural and natural forest., type driver)
  • GCM pattern (temperature, precipitation) - grid (Climate change patterns of General Circulation models used to downscale changes in global mean temperature to changes in temperature and precipitation at grid level; default pattern from HadCM3 of the Hadley Centre., type external parameter)
  • GDP per capita (Gross Domestic Product per capita, measured as the market value of all goods and services produced in a region in a year, and is used in the IMAGE framework as a generic indicator of economic activity., type driver)
  • GDP per capita - grid (Scaled down GDP per capita from country to grid level, based on population density., type driver)
  • GINI coefficient (Measure of income disparity in a population. If all have the same income, GINI equals 1. The lower the GINI, the wider the gap between the lowest and highest income groups., type driver)
  • GLWD (global lakes and wetlands database) - grid (Global map of lakes and wetlands., type external parameter)
  • Global emission pathways (Global emission pathway consistent with a specific long-term climate target., type model (end-indicator))
  • Global mean temperature (Average global temperature., type model (from/to model))
  • Grass requirement (Grass requirement; ruminants (nondairy cattle, dairy cattle, sheep and goats) are grazing animals, and part (in mixed systems) or most (pastoral systems) of their feed is grass, hay or other roughage; this grass requirement is calculated as a fraction of the total energy (feed) requirement., type model (from/to model))
  • HDI (human development index) (HDI: Development level of a country based on income, education and life expectancy., type model (end-indicator))
  • Harvest efficiency (Fraction of harvested wood used as product, the remainder being left as residues. Specified per biomass pool and forestry management type., type driver)
  • Harvested wood (Wood harvested and removed., type model (from/to model))
  • High resolution land cover (GLC2000) - grid (The database contains two levels of land cover information—detailed, regionally optimized land cover legends for each continent and a less thematically detailed global legend that harmonizes regional legends into one consistent product. The land cover maps are all based on daily data from the VEGETATION sensor on-board SPOT 4., type external parameter)
  • Income and price elasticities (Assumptions on income and price elasticities of demand, substitution elasticities, and many other elasticities,, type external parameter)
  • Increase in irrigated area - grid (Increase in irrigated area, often based on external projections (e.g., FAO)., type driver)
  • Infrastructure (infrastructure map from external model, type external parameter)
  • Initial land cover, land use - grid (Includes current state (intensive agriculture use, extensive agricultural use, no use) of land area and erosion protection represented by greenness index (NDVI = Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)., type external parameter)
  • Initial production costs (The costs of energy conversion technologies at the start of the simulation., type external parameter)
  • Initial technology cost (The costs of energy conversion technologies at the start of the simulation.., type external parameter)
  • Initial temperature, precipitation - grid (Global high resolution climate data from WorldClim., type external parameter)
  • Intensive grassland area (Intensively used grassland areas for grazing or mowing, at locations also suitable for crop production., type model (from/to model))
  • Irrigation conveyance efficiency (Ratio of water supplied to the irrigated field to the quantity withdrawn from the water source, determining the quantity of water lost during transport. This parameter is defined at country level., type driver)
  • Irrigation project efficiency (Ratio of quantity of irrigation water required by the crop (based on soil moisture deficits) to the quantity withdrawn from rivers, lakes, reservoirs or other sources. This parameter is given at country level., type driver)
  • Irrigation water availability - grid
  • Irrigation water consumption - grid (Irrigation water consumption by crops., type model (end-indicator))
  • Irrigation water supply - grid (Water supplied to irrigated fields; equal to irrigation water withdrawal minus water lost during transport, depending on the conveyance efficiency., type model (from/to model))
  • Irrigation water withdrawal - grid (Water withdrawn for irrigation, not necessarily equal to irrigation water demand, because of limited water availability in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and other sources., type model (from/to model))
  • LOD (location of dams and reservoirs) (Location, building year, purpose and size of 7000 largest reservoirs., type external parameter)
  • Labour supply (Effective supply of labour input to support economic activities, taking into account the participation rate of age cohorts., type driver)
  • Lake depth - grid (Database of lake depths., type external parameter)
  • Land cover, land use - grid (Multi-dimensional map describing all aspects of land cover and land use per grid cell, such as type of natural vegetation, crop and grass fraction, crop management, fertiliser and manure input, livestock density., type model (from/to model))
  • Land suitability - grid (Suitability of land in a grid cell for agriculture and forestry, as a function of accessibility, population density, slope and potential crop yields., type model (from/to model))
  • Land supply (Available land for agriculture, per grid or region, depending on suitability for crops, and excluding unsuitable areas such as steep slopes, wetlands and protected areas., type model (from/to model))
  • Land supply for bioenergy - grid (Land available for sustainable bioenergy production (abandoned agricultural land and non-forested land)., type model (from/to model))
  • Land systems - grid (Thirty land systems as defined in CLUMondo, characterized by specific levels of built-up area, cropland area, livestock density and management intensity., type model (from/to model))
  • Land use and land-use intensity - grid (High resolution land use and land use intensity based on GLC2000 and IMAGE land cover and land use., type model (from/to model))
  • Land-use CO2 emissions - grid (Land-use CO2 emissions from deforestation, wood harvest, agricultural harvest, bioenergy plantations and timber decay., type model (from/to model))
  • Learning rate (Determines the rate of technology development in learning equations., type driver)
  • Life expectancy (Average life expectancy of a person born in a given year.., type model (end-indicator))
  • Lifestyle parameters (Lifestyle parameters influence the relationship between economic activities and demand for energy., type driver)
  • Livestock production (Production of livestock products (dairy, beef, sheep and goats, pigs, poultry)., type model (from/to model))
  • Livestock rations (Determines the feed requirements per feed type (food crops; crop residues; grass and fodder; animal products; scavenging), specified per animal type and production system (extensive/intensive)., type driver)
  • MAGICC parameter settings (MAGICC 6.0 parameters calibrated to emulate one out of 19 climate models., type external parameter)
  • MSA (mean species abundance) - grid (Mean Species Abundance (MSA) relative to the natural state of original species., type model (from/to model))
  • MSA effect values (Database on empirical relationships between environmental pressures and reduction in mean species abundance for terrestrial ecosystems., type external parameter)
  • Management intensity crops (Management intensity crops, expressing actual yield level compared to potential yield. While potential yield is calculated for each grid cell, this parameter is expressed at the regional level. This parameter is based on data and exogenous assumptions - current practice and technological change in agriculture - and is endogenously adapted in the agro-economic model., type model (from/to model))
  • Management intensity livestock (Management intensity of livestock, expressed at the regional level. This parameter is based on data and exogenous assumptions, i.e. current practice and technological change in livestock sectors, and is endogenously adapted within the Agricultural economy component., type model (from/to model))
  • Manure spreading fraction (Fraction of manure produced in staples that is spread on agricultural areas., type driver)
  • Marginal abatement cost (Cost of an additional unit of pollution abated (CO2eq). A marginal abatement cost curve (MAC curve) is a set of options available to an economy to reduce pollution, ranked from the lowest to highest additional costs., type model (from/to model))
  • Mitigation costs (Costs of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, type model (end-indicator))
  • N and P discharge to surface water - grid (N and P discharge to surface water., type model (from/to model))
  • N and P in wastewater discharge - grid (Discharge of N and P to surface water from wastewater., type model (end-indicator))
  • NEP (net ecosystem production) - grid (Net natural exchange of CO2 between biosphere and atmosphere (NPP minus soil respiration), excluding human induced fluxes such as decay of wood products., type model (from/to model))
  • NH3 emissions - grid (Ammonia emissions from applied nitrogen fertiliser and manure., type model (end-indicator))
  • NPP (net primary production) - grid (CO2 sequestered by plants and incorporated in new tissue in plant carbon pools., type model (from/to model))
  • Nitrogen critical load (Level of N deposition or concentration that should not be exceeded., type external parameter)
  • Nitrogen deposition - grid (Deposition of nitrogen., type model (from/to model))
  • No-go areas - grid (Indicator to account for the fact that tourists do not visit countries in war, with high poverty rates or poor safety conditions. This index includes hunger, refugees, war, corruption, homocides and theft, type external parameter)
  • Non-CO2 GHG concentrations (Atmospheric concentration of non-CO2 greenhouse gases., type model (end-indicator))
  • Non-CO2 GHG emissions (CH4, N2O and Halocarbons) (Non-CO2 GHG emissions (CH4, N2O, Halocarbons)., type model (from/to model))
  • Number of wet days - grid (Number of days with a rain event, per month; assumed constant after the historical period, type historical data)
  • Ocean carbon uptake (Ocean carbon uptake., type model (from/to model))
  • Other crops (Fraction of other, not modelled crops in agricultural area, assumed constant in the future., type external parameter)
  • Other energy and land-use models (Emission projections and marginal abatement costs curves based on external models, such as the IIASA land-use models or the POLES database., type external parameter)
  • People dependent on solid fuel (Proportion of population using traditional biomass and coal for cooking and heating., type model (from/to model))
  • People living on less then USD 1.25 per day (People living on less than $1.25 a day., type model (end-indicator))
  • Pollination - grid (Additional yield due to natural pollination., type model (end-indicator))
  • Population (Number of people per region., type driver)
  • Population - grid (Number of people per gridcell (using downscaling)., type driver)
  • Potential bioenergy yield - grid (Potential yields of bioenergy crops., type model (from/to model))
  • Potential crop and grass yield - grid (Potential crop and grass yield, changing over time due to climate change and possibly soil degradation. In some components, i.e. 'Agricultural economy' regional aggregations of the dataset which depend on the actual land-use area, are used., type model (from/to model))
  • Potential natural vegetation - grid (Potential natural vegetation type/biome, based on distribution of plant functional types., type model (from/to model))
  • Precipitation - grid (Monthly total precipitation., type model (from/to model))
  • Preferences (Non-price factors determining market shares, such as preferences, environmental policies, infrastructure and strategic considerations, used for model calibration., type driver)
  • Presence of natural pest control - grid (Presence of natural pest control., type model (end-indicator))
  • Prevalence of undernourishment (Proportion of the population with insufficient food intake to meet dietary energy requirements., type model (end-indicator))
  • Primary energy price (The price of primary energy carriers based on production costs., type model (from/to model))
  • Private consumption (Private consumption reflects expenditure on private household consumption. It is used in IMAGE as a driver of energy., type driver)
  • Production system mix (Livestock production is distributed over two systems (intensive: mixed and industrial; extensive: pastoral grazing), with specific intensities, rations and feed conversion ratios., type driver)
  • Protected area - grid (Map of protected nature areas, limiting use of this area., type driver)
  • Radiative forcing (Radiative forcing of greenhouse gases, ozone, and aerosols., type model (end-indicator))
  • Radiative forcing factors (Radiative forcing per greenhouse gas., type external parameter)
  • Rainwater consumption - grid (Rain water consumption by crops., type model (end-indicator))
  • Reduced erosion risk - grid (Reduction in erosion risk by natural vegetation., type model (end-indicator))
  • Regression parameters (Regression parameters of suitability assessment., type external parameter)
  • Regrowth forest area - grid (Areas of re-growing forests after agricultural abandonment or timber harvest., type model (from/to model))
  • Relationship income and emission factor (Relationship between GDP and emission factors., type external parameter)
  • Residual damage (Climate change damage remaining after adaptation., type model (end-indicator))
  • Residue management (Assumptions on residue management in agriculture., type external parameter)
  • River discharge - grid (Average flow of water through each grid cell., type model (from/to model))
  • Road-map - grid (Global road map., type external parameter)
  • Rules on use of technology (Rules determining how different types of power plants are used., type external parameter)
  • SO2 emissions (SO2 emissions, per source (e.g. fossil fuel burning, deforestation)., type model (from/to model))
  • SRI (species richness index) - grid (Species richness calculated from MSA and species area curves., type model (end-indicator))
  • Secondary energy price (The secondary energy price of each energy carrier at the end-use level (coal, oil, gas, bio-energy, electricity, hydrogen) is calculated based on (1) the primary energy price, (2) energy taxes and subsidies, (3) the costs of energy conversion throughout the energy supply chain and (4) a correction factor., type model (from/to model))
  • Sector value added (Value Added for economic sectors: Industry (IVA), Services (SVA) and Agriculture (AVA). These variables are used in IMAGE to indicate economic activity., type driver)
  • Slope - grid (Terrain slope index., type external parameter)
  • Soil N budget - grid (N budget in the soil, used to calculate fate of nitrogen in the soil-hydrology system and for determining emissions to the atmosphere., type model (end-indicator))
  • Soil P budget - grid (P budget in the soil, used to calculate fate of nitrogen in the soil-hydrology system (residual soil P or surface runoff)., type model (end-indicator))
  • Soil properties - grid (Soil properties that have an effect on vegetation growth and hydrology. These characteristics differ between soil types. Relevant characteristics are soil texture and depth and water holding capacity, type external parameter)
  • Soil respiration - grid (CO2 release from soils into the atmosphere due to the decay of soil carbon pools and respiration of soil organisms., type model (end-indicator))
  • Soil types and profiles (S-World) (Soil profiles based on the HWSD (Harmonised World Soil Database) and on the ISRIC-WISE international soil profile dataset, type external parameter)
  • Species-area relationships (Number of species in relation to the size of an ecosystem., type external parameter)
  • Statistics of inundation extent - grid (Annual statistics of flooded fraction per grid cell., type model (end-indicator))
  • Statistics on inundation depth - grid (Annual statistics of water depth in flooded areas of a grid cell., type model (from/to model))
  • Statistics on river discharge - grid (Annual statistics on river discharge., type model (end-indicator))
  • Suitability for nature-based tourism - grid (Attractiveness for nature-based tourism., type model (end-indicator))
  • Sulphate pattern - grid (Patterns of climate change to compute non-linear regional radiative effects of sulphate aerosols., type external parameter)
  • Taxes and other additional costs (Taxes on energy use, and other additional costs, type driver)
  • Technological change (crops and livestocks) (Increase in productivity in crop production (yield/ha) and livestock production (carcass weight, offtake rate)., type driver)
  • Technology development of energy conversion (Learning curves and exogenous learning that determine technology development., type driver)
  • Technology development of energy supply (Learning curves and exogenous learning that determine technology development., type driver)
  • Temperature - grid (Monthly average temperature., type model (from/to model))
  • Timber demand (Demand for roundwood and pulpwood per region., type driver)
  • Timber use fraction (Fractions of harvested timber entering the fast-decaying timber pool, the slow-decaying timber pool, or burnt as traditional biofuels., type model (from/to model))
  • Topography - grid (Topography and altitude, determining the altitude range within a grid cell., type external parameter)
  • Topography, elevation - grid (Global high resolution map of topography and elevation from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Digital Elevation Model., type external parameter)
  • Total primary energy supply (Total primary energy supply., type model (end-indicator))
  • Trade (all commodities) (Bilateral trade between regions per sector, including various crop and livestock sectors., type model (end-indicator))
  • Trade policy (Assumed changes in market and non-market instruments that influence trade flows, subject to WTO rules and country and region regulation., type driver)
  • Trade restriction (Trade tariffs and barriers limiting trade in energy carriers (in energy submodel)., type driver)
  • Traditional biomass from non-forest land (Fraction of traditional fuelwood from non-forestry sources, such as orchard, assumed to be 50% (low-income countries) and 68% (middle-income countries)., type external parameter)
  • Urban population fraction (Urban/rural split of population., type driver)
  • Water availability - grid (Water availability in rivers, lakes and reservoirs., type model (end-indicator))
  • Water demand other sectors - grid (Total annual water demand for non-agricultural sectors (households, industry and electricity production), type external parameter)
  • Water erosion sensitivity index - grid
  • Water stress - grid (Water stress is a basin scale indicator of the mean annual water demand to availability ratio. This ratio gives an indication for the level of water stress experienced in the basin. Basins with a water demand to availability ratio above 0.2 are considered medium water stressed, basins with ratios above 0.4 are severely water stressed., type model (end-indicator))
  • Water temperature - grid (water temperature., type external parameter)
  • Water withdrawal other sectors - grid (Total annual water withdrawal by non-agricultural sectors., type model (from/to model))
  • Weighting factors for temperature, precipitation, land use and slope (Weighting factors for the contribution of temperature, precipitation, land use and slope on distribution of soil properties., type external parameter)
  • Wilderness area - grid (Non-agricultural areas close to their natural state, with MSA values above 0.8., type model (end-indicator))

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