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Key publications

IPCC, 2000
IPCC (2000). Special report on emissions scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

MA, 2005
MA (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Scenarios, Carpenter, S.R.Pingali, P.Bennet, E.M.Zurek, M.B. (eds.), Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Island Press, Washington D.C., 2.

OECD, 2012
OECD (2012). OECD Environmental outlook to 2050: The consequences of inaction, OECD Publishing, Paris, France.
Link to PBL-website:

All cited references

Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012
Nikos Alexandratos, J. Bruinsma (2012). World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision, FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(URL:

Bouwman et al., 2005
A. F. Bouwman, K. W. Van Der Hoek, B. Eickhout, I. Soenario (2005). Exploring changes in world ruminant production systems. Agricultural Systems, 84(2), pp. 121-153, doi:
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Bouwman et al., 2013b
L. Bouwman, K. K. Goldewijk, K. W. Van Der Hoek, A. H. W. Beusen, D. P. Van Vuuren, J. Willems, M. C. Rufino, E. Stehfest (2013). Exploring global changes in nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in agriculture induced by livestock production over the 1900-2050 period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(52), pp. 20882-20887, doi:
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Bruinsma, 2003
J. Bruinsma (2003). World agriculture: towards 2015/2030., An FAO perspective, Earthscan, London.

Chateau et al., 2013
J. Chateau, R. Dellink, E. Lanzi, B. Magné (2013). An overview of the OECD ENV-Linkages model - version 3, OECD Environment Working paper 42, OECD Publishing, OECD, Paris.

Dellink et al., 2017
R. Dellink, J. Chateau, E. Lanzi, B. Magné (2017). Long-term economic growth projections in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways.. Global Environmental Change, 42, pp. 200-214, doi:

Ebi et al., 2014a
K. Ebi, S. Hallegatte, T. Kram, N. Arnell, T. Carter, J. Edmonds, E. Kriegler, R. Mathur, B. O'Neill, K. Riahi, H. Winkler, D. van Vuuren, T. Zwickel (2014). A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions. Climatic Change, 122(3), pp. 363-372, doi:

FAO, 2013a
FAO (2013). FAOSTAT database collections.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Rome.Access date: 2013-04-22.URL:

IIASA, 2013
IIASA (2013). SSP Database.IIASA.Access date: December 2013.URL:

KC and Lutz, forthcoming
Samir KC, W. Lutz (2014). The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100. Global Environmental Change, doi:

Klein Goldewijk et al., 2010
K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Beusen, P. Janssen (2010). Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. Holocene, 20(4), pp. 565-573, doi:
Link to PBL-website:

Lutz and KC, 2010
Wolfgang Lutz, Samir KC (2010). Dimensions of global population projections: what do we know about future population trends and structures?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), pp. 2779-2791.

Moss et al., 2010
R. H. Moss, J. A. Edmonds, K. A. Hibbard, M. R. Manning, S. K. Rose, D. P. Van Vuuren, T. R. Carter, S. Emori, M. Kainuma, T. Kram, G. A. Meehl, J. F. B. Mitchell, N. Nakicenovic, K. Riahi, S. J. Smith, R. J. Stouffer, A. M. Thomson, J. P. Weyant, T. J. Wilbanks (2010). The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature, 463(7282), pp. 747-756, doi:

Mulders et al., 2006
F.M.M. Mulders, J.M.M. Hettelar, F. Van Bergen (2006). Assessment of the global fossil fuel reserves and resources for TIMER, TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

OECD, 2008
OECD (2008). Environmental outlook to 2030, OECD Publications, Paris, France.
Link to PBL-website:

PBL, 2010
PBL (2010). Rethinking global biodiversity strategies, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague. Link to PBL-website:

PBL, 2011
PBL (2011). The protein puzzle, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague. Link to PBL-website:

Rogner, 1997
H. Rogner (1997). An assessment of world hydrocarbon resources. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 22, pp. 217-262, doi:

Rohwer et al., 2007
J. Rohwer, D. Gerten, W. Lucht (2007). Development of functional types of irrigation for improved global crop modelling, PIK.

UN, 2013
UN (2013). World Population Prospects, The 2012 Revision, Volume I: Comprehensive Tables, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division(URL:

Van Vuuren et al., 2007b
D. P. van Vuuren, P. L. Lucas, H. Hilderink (2007). Downscaling drivers of global environmental change: Enabling use of global SRES scenarios at the national and grid levels. Global Environmental Change, 17(1), pp. 114-130, doi:
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Van Vuuren et al., 2012
D. P. Van Vuuren, K. Riahi, R. Moss, J. Edmonds, A. Thomson, N. Nakicenovic, T. Kram, F. Berkhout, R. Swart, A. Janetos, S. K. Rose, N. Arnell (2012). A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), pp. 21-35, doi:
Link to PBL-website: