Energy demand - Cement

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Key publications

Van Ruijven et al., 2016:
B. J. Van Ruijven, D. P. Van Vuuren, W. Boskaljon, M. L. Neelis, D. Saygin, M. K. Patel (2016). Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2 emissions from the global steel and cement industries. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 112, pp. 15-36, doi:

Clinker and Cement sector

Overall Layout

Value chain representation

Available value chain elements represented in the IMAGE model:

Elements Presence Elaboration
Material extraction - -
Material demand x Logistic growth model plotted to historical per capita steel consumption data and per capita GDP (van Ruijven et al., 2016)
Production routes x

Primary (Clinker to cement) (van Ruijven et al., 2016)

Technolgoy choice x

Market share decided on multinomial logit formulation, choosing on relative production costs per region (van Ruijven et al., 2016)

Trade x

Trade is calculated based on the average regional production cost (e.g. production costs, transport cost and trade barriers) (van Ruijven et al., 2016)

End use representation - -
End-of-life representation - -

Historical representation

Available capital stock present at the start of the simulation:

Fossil based capacity
  • Standard dry feed rotary kiln

Dynamic options for systems change

The following capital stock alternatives are at the disposal of the IMAGE model. Options are chosen on a least-cost base. Relative price differences are created through differences and changes in CAPEX, OPEX, carbon storage costs and policy costs over the time horizon of the model.

Class Option
Energy innovations
  • Efficient dry feed rotary kiln
  • Fuel Switching
  • Efficient dry feed rotary kiln + on-site CCS
  • Efficient dry feed rotary kiln + oxy-combustion CCS
Material innovations
Process innovations

Additional imposable options for systems change

The following options for systems change can be imposed onto the model. Not included in a standard IMAGE model scenario run.

Class Option
Energy innovations
Material innovation
  • Feedstock substitution
  • Material demand reduction
Process innovations