Energy demand - Cement
Is subpage of expert page:
- Iron & Steel: Iron & Steel value chain representation
- Non Energy: (Petro)chemical value chain representation
- Pulp and paper: Pulp & Paper value chain representation
- Food processing: Food processing value chain representation
- Cement: Energy demand from the cement sector
Van Ruijven et al., 2016:
B. J. Van Ruijven, D. P. Van Vuuren, W. Boskaljon, M. L. Neelis, D. Saygin, M. K. Patel (2016). Long-term model-based projections of energy use and CO2 emissions from the global steel and cement industries. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 112, pp. 15-36, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.04.016.
Value chain representation
Available value chain elements represented in the IMAGE model:
|Material demand||x||Logistic growth model plotted to historical per capita steel consumption data and per capita GDP (van Ruijven et al., 2016)|
Primary (Clinker to cement) (van Ruijven et al., 2016)
Market share decided on multinomial logit formulation, choosing on relative production costs per region (van Ruijven et al., 2016)
Trade is calculated based on the average regional production cost (e.g. production costs, transport cost and trade barriers) (van Ruijven et al., 2016)
|End use representation||-||-|
Available capital stock present at the start of the simulation:
|Fossil based capacity||
Dynamic options for systems change
The following capital stock alternatives are at the disposal of the IMAGE model. Options are chosen on a least-cost base. Relative price differences are created through differences and changes in CAPEX, OPEX, carbon storage costs and policy costs over the time horizon of the model.
Additional imposable options for systems change
The following options for systems change can be imposed onto the model. Not included in a standard IMAGE model scenario run.