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AD RICE model +The AD-RICE model estimates damage and adaptation costs resulting from the damage of climate change. Total damage costs are the sum of adaptation costs and residual damage costs (unavoided damage).  +
AR4 (IPCC) database +The IPCC Data Distribution Centre provides climate, socio-economic and environmental data, both from the past and also in scenarios projected into the future. Technical guidelines on the selection and use of different types of data and scenarios in research and assessment are also provided  +
Access to drinking water and sanitation +Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.  +
Accessibility - grid +Accessibility expressed as travel time.  +
Actual crop and grass production - grid +Actual crop and grass production on agricultural land, based on potential yield and management intensity  +
Adaptation costs +Costs for adaptation measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to actual or expected climate change effects.  +
Adaptation level +Level of adaptation to climate change , defined as the share of climate change damage avoided by adaptation. This level is be calculated by the model to minimise adaptation costs and residual damage, or set by the user.  +
Agricultural area - grid +Total area for crop production (annual and perennial) and intensive grassland.  +
Agricultural trade policies +Changes in agricultural trade policies are applied to the corresponding quota (export or import quota) or border taxes.  +
Air pollution policy +Air pollution policies set to reach emission reduction targets, represented in the model in the form of energy carrier and sector specific emission factors.  +
Algal blooms in lakes +Harmful algal blooms in lakes caused by cyanobacteria, producing toxins harmful to humans and animals.  +
All baseline figures +All baseline figures from IMAGE framework  +
All flow charts overview +All flowcharts from IMAGE framework  +
All policy intervention figures +All Policy intervention figures from IMAGE framework  +
All references overview +List of all references in citation format  +
All references table overview +All references are listed in table format. Use the column headers to sort the set. Purpose is lookup a reference.  +
Alterra +Alterra is the research institute for our green living environment. We offer a combination of practical and scientific research in a multitude of disciplines related to the green world around us and the sustainable use of our living environment: Flora and fauna, soil, water, the environment, geo-information and remote sensing, landscape and spatial planning, man and society. These are just a few of the numerous aspects of our green environment that Alterra focuses on. Alterra is part of the Wageningen University and Research Centre (Wageningen UR).  +
Animal productivity +Effective production of livestock commodities per animal per year.  +
Animal stocks +Number of animals per category: non-dairy cattle; dairy cattle; pigs; sheep and goats; poultry.  +
Applications +IMAGE has been used for a variety of purposes and studies as shown in the following projects/ studies/ applications. The set is grouped by application/project purpose.  +
Apply emission and energy intensity standards +Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).  +
Aquatic MSA - grid +Relative Mean Species Abundance of original species in lakes, rivers and wetlands.  +
Avoiding deforestation +Here comes description  +
BC, OC and NOx emissions +Emissions of BC, OC and NO<sub>x</sub> per year.  +
Bioenergy area +Area of bioenergy crop production, in model setting where sustainability criteria require that the area for bioenergy crops is not included in the agricultural production area (to avoid competition between bioenergy and food).  +