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Agricultural trade policies#EffectOnEcosystem_services +Change in land use for agriculture, will also result in a change in nature and thereby influence the ES dependent on nature (e.g. erosion and flood protection, pest control and pollination). Large agricultural areas negatively influence the ES "nature based tourism", therefore change in agricultural land use will influence the ES "nature based tourism".  +
Agricultural trade policies#EffectOnLand-use_allocation +Due to changed production in agricultural commodities, land use for agriculture within a region will change.  +
Agricultural trade policies#EffectOnAgricultural_economy +Impact of this policy intervention is a change in trade between regions, and consequently a change in production within a region for the different crop and livestock sectors.  +
Capacity targets#EffectOnEnergy_conversion +Manually changing the generation capacity will result in a transition towards using more or less capacity of the selected generation type.  +
Carbon tax#EffectOnEnergy_conversion +A carbon tax will induce a transition from carbon intensive fuel to carbon low fuels. Since hydrogen and electricity are well suited for carrying carbon low energy, the production of hydrogen and electricity could increase.  +
Carbon tax#EffectOnEnergy_supply +The energy supply will change from the use of carbon intensive energy carriers to the use of low/zero carbon energy carriers.  +
Carbon tax#EffectOnClimate_policy +In the climate policy component, the carbon tax leads to emission reductions via Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves derived from the TIMER model.  +
Carbon tax#EffectOnEnergy_demand +The higher fossil fuel prices result in a shift towards less carbon-intensive energy carriers and (assuming a higher overall energy price) more energy efficiency. There can also be changes in end-use technologies ( e.g. electric cars in the transport sector, blast furnaces with CCS to produce iron and steel).  +
Carbon tax#EffectOnHuman_development +Induces a transition from carbon intensive fuels to carbon low fuels, thereby also lowering outdoor air pollution. Lower air pollution reduces mortality rates through reduced incidence of lung cancer, cardiopulmonary diseases and acute respiratory infections  +
Change in grazing intensity#EffectOnLand-use_allocation +More intensive grassland management decrease the area needed for grassland, while producing the same amount of grass and/or feeding the same size of livestock.  +
Change in grazing intensity#EffectOnLivestock_systems +Increasing grazing intensity has no consequences for the livestock if not combined with introduction of better breeds  +
Change in grazing intensity#EffectOnTerrestrial_biodiversity +Effects biodiversity in two ways: less grazing areas decrease the impact on habitats, while more intensive management or increased grazing intensity icnreases the pressures on biodiversity of the remaining areas.  +
Change market shares of fuel types#EffectOnEnergy_conversion +An interference with the share of fuel types, results in a change of the market share of the selected fuel types to the predetermined values. This again results in less conversion capacity of the selected fuel type.  +
Change market shares of fuel types#EffectOnEnergy_demand +The share of the fuel in final energy consumption will be at least equal to the target.  +
Change market shares of fuel types#EffectOnEnergy_supply +A change of the market share of the selected fuel types to the predetermined values.  +
Change the use of electricity and hydrogen#EffectOnEnergy_demand +An increase in the use of electricity and hydrogen at the end use level. Given the high flexibility in the choice of feedstock in electricity and hydrogen production this can increase the ability of the total system to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a mitigation scenario.  +
Change the use of electricity and hydrogen#EffectOnEnergy_conversion +This policy intervention will result in more hydrogen or electricity production and generation capacity.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnEcosystem_services +Dietary changes reduces the amount of the ES "food" needed. When the reduced agricultural land use, results in an increase of natural area, the supply of the services dependent nature (e.g. erosion and flood protection, pollination and pest control), will be increased.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnLivestock_systems +Changes the production of livestock products within a region.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnTerrestrial_biodiversity +This intervention reduces the pressure from agricultural land use to terrestrial biodiversity.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnNutrients +Dietary changes, for example assumes that by 2050 10% of the baseline scenario’s beef consumption is replaced by poultry meat in all producing regions, without accounting for changes in agricultural trade  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnAgricultural_economy +Changes demand for certain products, and subsequently production and trade of that product.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnAquatic_biodiversity +Changes in agricultural land use affects nutrient leaching to water bodies.  +
Changes in consumption and diet preferences#EffectOnLand-use_allocation +Changes in production of agricultural commodities within a region change the land use for agricultural purposes (both total area for agriculture and the ratio of grass to crop area).  +
Changes in crop and livestock production systems#EffectOnTerrestrial_biodiversity +Impacts terrestrial biodiversity in two ways: 1) a smaller agricultural area decrease habitat loss and 2) it increase intensity of the agricultural area and consequently the biodiversity value of those areas.  +