Difference between revisions of "Human development/Policy issues"

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{{ComponentSubPolicyTemplate}}
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{{ComponentSubPolicyTemplate
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|Status=On hold
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|Description=Policy interventions to decrease human health loss and child mortality rates can be classified as:
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# (primary) prevention, i.e. eliminating or reducing  the health risk, and
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# curation, i.e investing in health systems which lowers the chances of dying of a particular disease or health risk.
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Prevention generally relates to taking away the risks through:
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# increasing access levels by lowering prices and investing in infrastructure;
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# improving the quality of access through for example a household connection for drinking water supply and LPG or kerosene instead of using improved biomass stoves;
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# improving behavior through women education, hygiene measures and good ventilation; and
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# mitigating environmental changes such as climate change, biodiversity loss and water stress. The GISMO model addresses the first three options, while the last option is addressed in other parts of the IMAGE framework.
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|Example=In Figure 7.6.3 we present the results of two policy scenarios on top of the baseline scenario (see also PBL, 2012). The first scenario addresses improving access to food, water and energy:
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*By 2030 all people have access to modern energy sources or at least use improved biomass stoves for cooking
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*By 2050 hunger is eradicated
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*By 2050 all people have access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation
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The second scenario puts quality of access and some elements of behavioral change on top of the access scenario:
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*By 2050 a household connections to drinking water for all
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*By 2050 a full transition towards modern fuels for cooking and heating
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*By 2030 full enrolment of girls in secondary education
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The policies on food and energy in the first scenario are handled in other parts of the IMAGE framework. Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is forced exogenously and therefore not dynamically modelled. As a result the global child mortality rate is improved with 12% in 2030 and more than 26% by 2050 compared to the baseline (see Figure 7.6.3). The policies in the second scenario are stylized in the sense that they are not calculated using the full modeling framework and therefore do not take into account socio-economic and environmental constraints. In this scenario, child mortality improves by almost 25% in 2030 and 34% in 2050 compared to the baseline. Removing health risks due to further improved energy and water services eliminates most of the attributable mortality. Furthermore, targeting female education significantly improves the utilisation of food and reduces child underweight due to better nutrition.
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Revision as of 11:55, 2 August 2013