IMAGE framework/Development for the 2015-2020 period

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In 2014, the IMAGE-3 model was finalized. In 2020, we finalized the IMAGE 3.2 model. The IMAGE 3.2 model goes beyond the earlier model versions in several ways.

  • The model has been calibrated up to 2015, and where possible, even 2018. Moreover, the base year for model analysis was set at 2020.
  • The detail in modelling energy demand was further improved. This concerns transport, industry, buildings, services and agriculture.
  • In energy conversion, details were added to electricity representation and hydrogen production (using a residual load curve approach).
  • The modelling of bio-energy was greatly improved, using dynamic emission factors based on the IMAGE-land model.
  • Climate impacts on different forms of renewable energy were added to the model.
  • In land use, the number of crops and animal products was significantly increased.
  • Also, updates were made in the representation of deforestation, other lands, built-up area
  • The link between the agriculture-economic model MAGNET and the IMAGE model was significantly improved.
  • The modelling of land-based mitigation in IMAGE and MAGNET was substantially improved now including avoided deforestation afforestation through MAC curves in FAIR. Also peatland degradation was included.
  • The water modelling in IMAGE linked to LPJmL was improved introducing municipal, energy and industry water demand in LPJmL and making it possible to account for environmental flow requirements.