Ecosystem services

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Component is implemented in:
  • GLOBIO model (version 3.0)
Related IMAGE components
Key publications
Ecosystem Services model in IMAGE 3.0
Flowchart Ecosystem services. See also the Input/Output Table on the introduction page.

Key policy issues

  • How would ecosystem services and the benefits from the natural environment develop in the absence of specific policies?
  • How could policy interventions contribute to improving future ecosystem services?
  • How could policy interventions influence the interaction between ecosystem services and other goals and ambitions, such as the millennium development goals?

Input/Output Table

Input Ecosystem services component

IMAGE model drivers and variablesDescriptionSource
GDP per capita - grid Scaled down GDP per capita from country to grid level, based on population density. Drivers
Protected area - grid Map of protected nature areas, limiting use of this area. Drivers
Cloudiness - grid (historical data) Percentage of cloudiness per month; assumed constant after the historical period CRU database
Number of wet days - grid (historical data) Number of days with a rain event, per month; assumed constant after the historical period CRU database
Crop production Regional production per crop. Agricultural economy
Erosion risk - grid Risk of soil erosion caused by water. Land degradation
Land use and land-use intensity - grid High resolution land use and land use intensity based on GLC2000 and IMAGE land cover and land use. Terrestrial biodiversity
Livestock production Production of livestock products (dairy, beef, sheep and goats, pigs, poultry). Agricultural economy
NEP (net ecosystem production) - grid Net natural exchange of CO2 between biosphere and atmosphere (NPP minus soil respiration), excluding human induced fluxes such as decay of wood products. Carbon cycle and natural vegetation
Ocean carbon uptake Ocean carbon uptake. Atmospheric composition and climate
Precipitation - grid Monthly total precipitation. Atmospheric composition and climate
River discharge - grid Average flow of water through each grid cell. Water
Statistics on inundation depth - grid Annual statistics of water depth in flooded areas of a grid cell. Flood risks
Temperature - grid Monthly average temperature. Atmospheric composition and climate
External datasetsDescriptionSource
Accessibility - grid Accessibility expressed as travel time.
Distance to water - grid Distance to water. based on HYDRO1K database, GTOPO30 DEM, coastline map and USGS 2009
Ecosystem services effect values Database on relationships between environmental factors and ecosystem services.
Fish landing - grid Fish landings according to statistics from "Sea around us".
No-go areas - grid Indicator to account for the fact that tourists do not visit countries in war, with high poverty rates or poor safety conditions. This index includes hunger, refugees, war, corruption, homocides and theft The World Bank, World development indicators and global development finance
Topography - grid Topography and altitude, determining the altitude range within a grid cell. GLOBE Digital Elevation Model

Output Ecosystem services component

IMAGE model variablesDescriptionUse
Pollination - grid Additional yield due to natural pollination. Final output
Flood protection - grid Reduction in flood risk by natural vegetation. Final output
Carbon sequestration - grid Net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems and oceans. Final output
Suitability for nature-based tourism - grid Attractiveness for nature-based tourism. Final output
Water availability - grid Water availability in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Final output
Presence of natural pest control - grid Presence of natural pest control. Final output
Food availability, including fish and wild food Food availability, including fish and wild food. Final output
Reduced erosion risk - grid Reduction in erosion risk by natural vegetation. Final output
"policy respons" is not in the list (driver component, pressure component, state component, impact component, response component, interaction component) of allowed values for the "FrameworkElementType" property.